25 Stunning Entries for National Geographic Traveler Photo Contest

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Over 12,000 amazing images were submitted from all over the world in these four categories: Travel Portraits; Outdoor Scenes; Sense of Place; and Spontaneous Moments. National Geographic will announce the winners next month and meanwhile we are sharing 25 of our favorite entries.

When I look at these hgh replacement therapy spectacular photos I start to think that maybe my photography teacher was wrong after all. He used to say that we should leave our DSLRs at home when traveling. Source: 1.

“Take point-and-shoot camera instead – it’s either a holiday or you are working,” he said.

How to Control your Anger in a Healthy Way

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When Temper Flares

Do you lose your temper and wonder why? Are there days when you feel like you just wake up angry? Want to know How to Control your Anger in a Healthy Way?

Some of it may be the changes your body’s going through: All those hormones you hear so much about can cause mood swings and confused emotions. Some of it may be stress: People who are under a lot of pressure tend to get angry more easily. Part of it may be your personality: You may be someone who feels your emotions intensely or tends to act impulsively or lose control. And part of it may be your role models: Maybe you’ve seen other people in your family blow a fuse when they’re mad.

No matter what pushes your buttons, one thing is certain — you’re sure to get angry sometimes. Everyone does. Anger is a normal emotion, and there’s nothing wrong with feeling mad. What counts is how we handle it (and ourselves) when we’re angry.

TOOLS TO TAME A TEMPER:

1. When you are angry say nothing.

If we speak in anger we will definitely aggravate the situation and quite likely hurt the feelings of others. If we speak in anger we will find that people respond in kind, creating a spiral of negative anger. If we can remain outwardly silent it gives time for the emotion of anger to leave us.

“When angry count to ten before you speak. If very angry, count to one hundred. “

– Thomas Jefferson

2. Be indifferent to those who seek to make us angry.

Some people may unfortunately take a malicious pleasure in trying to make you mad. However, if we can feel indifferent to them and their words; if we feel it is beyond our dignity to even acknowledge them, then their words and actions will have no effect. Also, if we do not respond in any way to their provocation, they will lose interest and not bother us in the future.

3. Use reason to stop anger.

When we feel anger coming to the fore try to take a step back and say to yourself “This anger will not help me ProExtender in any way. This anger will make the situation worse.” Even if part of us remains angry our inner voice is helping us to distance our self from the emotion of anger.

4. Look kindly upon Others.

Another visualisation, suggested by spiritual teacher Paramhansa Yogananda, is to see the anger-rousing agent as a 5 year old child. If you think of the other person as a helpless 5 year old child your compassion and forgiveness will come to the fore. If your baby brother accidentally stabbed you, you would not feel anger and desire to retaliate. Instead, you would just feel he is just too young to know any better. This exercise may be particularly useful for close members of the family who at times evoke your anger.

5. Value Peace more than anger.

If we value peace of mind as our most important treasure we will not allow anger to remain in our system. As Sri Chinmoy says:

“You may have every right to be angry with someone, but you know that by getting angry with him you will only lose your precious peace of mind..”

6. Always try to understand those who are cross.

Don’t worry about feeling the need to defend yourself from their criticisms. If you can remain detached and calm they may begin to feel guilty about venting their anger on you. Inspired by your example of calmness, they will seek subconsciously to do the same.

7. Focus on Something Completely Different.

Suppose someone has done something to make you angry. Think about something which will make you happy. The best antidote to negativity is to focus on the positive.

8. Breathe Deeply.

The simple act of breathing deeply will help considerably with removing anger.

9. Meditation.

Practise meditation regularly to bring your inner peace to the fore. If we can have an inner access to our inner peace we will be able to draw upon this during testing times. – How to Meditate

10. Smile

When we smile we defuse many negative situations. To smile is offer goodwill to others. Smiling costs nothing but can effectively defuse tense situations.

Do you know these Interesting Facts of Dreaming ?

Effects of Computer Games on Children

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Video games have been available to consumers for the last 30 years. They are a unique form of entertainment, because they encourage players to become a part of the game’s script. Today’s sophisticated video games require players to pay constant attention to the game, rather than passively watching a movie. This has both positive and negative impacts on players. Several studies have been published that explore these impacts on today’s children.

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Positive Effects of Computer Games on Children

Video games give your child’s brain a real workout.  In many video games, the skills required to win involve abstract and high level thinking.  These skills are not even taught at school.  Some of the mental skills trained by video games include:

  •    Following instructions
  •   Problem solving and logic
  •   Hand-eye coordination, fine motor and spatial skills. In shooting games, the character may be running and shooting at the same time. This requires the real-world player to keep track of the position of the character, where he/she is heading, their speed, where the gun is aiming, if the gunfire is hitting the enemy, and so on. All these factors need to be taken into account, and then the player must then coordinate the brain’s interpretation and reaction with the movement in their hands and fingertips. This process requires a great deal of eye-hand coordination and visual-spatial ability to be successful.  Research also suggests that people can learn iconic, spatial, and visual attention skills from video games.  There have been even studies with adults showing that experience with video games is related to better surgical skills. Also, a reason given by experts as to why fighter pilots of today are more skillful is that this generation’s pilots are being weaned on video games.
  •   Resource management and logistics.  The player learn to manage resources that are limited, and decide the best use of resources, the same way as in real life.  This skill is honed in strategy games such as SimCity, Age of Empires, and Railroad Tycoon
  •   Multitasking, simultaneous tracking of many shifting variables and managing multiple objectives.  In strategy games, for instance, while developing a city, an unexpected surprise like an enemy might emerge.  This forces the player to be flexible and quickly change tactics.
  • o    Quick thinking, making fast analysis and decisions.  Sometimes the player does this almost every second of the game giving the brain a real workout. According to researchers at the University of Rochester, led by Daphne Bavelier, a cognitive scientist, games simulating stressful events such as those found in battle or action games could be a training tool for real-world situations. The study suggests that playing action video games primes the brain to make quick decisions. Video games can be used to train soldiers and surgeons, according to the study.
  •    Strategy and anticipation – Steven Johnson, author of Everything Bad is Good For You: How Today’s Popular Culture is Actually Making Us Smarter, calls this “telescoping.” Gamers must deal with immediate problems while keeping their long-term goals on their horizon.
  •    Developing reading and math skills – Young gamers force themselves to read to get instructions, follow storylines of games, and get information from the game texts.  Also, using math skills is important to win in many games that involves quantitative analysis like managing resources.
  •  Perseverance – In higher levels of a game, players usually fail the first time around, but they keep on trying until they succeed and move on to the next level.
  •     Pattern recognition – Games have internal logic in them, and players figure it out by recognizing patterns.
  •    Estimating skills
  •    Inductive reasoning and hypothesis testing – James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, says that playing a video game is similar to working through a science problem. Like students in a laboratory, gamers must come up with a hypothesis. For example, players in some games constantly try out combinations of weapons and powers to use to defeat an enemy.  If one does not work, they change hypothesis and try the next one.  Video games are goal-driven experiences, says Gee, which are fundamental to learning.
  •     Mapping – Gamers use in-game maps or build maps on their heads to navigate around virtual worlds.
  •   Memory
  •   Improved ability to rapidly and accurately recognize visual information – A study from Beth Israel Medical Center NY, found a direct link between skill at video gaming and skill at keyhole, or laparoscopic, surgery.
  •   Reasoned judgments
  •   Taking risks – Winning in any game involves a player’s courage to take risks. Most games do not reward players who play safely.
  •   How to respond to challenges
  •  How to respond to frustrations
  •   How to explore and rethink goals
  •   Teamwork and cooperation when played with others – many games are played online and involve cooperation with other online players in order to win.
  •   Simulation, real world skills.  The most well known simulations are flight simulators, which attempt to mimic the reality of flying a plane. All of the controls, including airspeed, wing angles, altimeter, and so on, are displayed for the player, as well as a visual representation of the world, and are updated in real time.
  • Video games introduce your kid to computer technology and the online world.  You should recognize that we are now living in a high-tech, sophisticated world.  Video games make your kid adapt and be comfortable with the concepts of computing.  This is particularly important for girls who typically are not as interested in high technology as much as boys.
  • Video games allow you and your kid to play together and can be a good bonding activity.  Some games are attractive to kids as well as adults, and they could be something that they share in common.  When your child knows more than you, he can teach you how to play and this allows you to understand your child’s skills and talents.
  • Video games make learning fun.   Your kid likes games because of the colors, the animation, the eye candy, as well as the interactivity and the challenge and the rewards of winning.  The best way to learn is when the learner is having fun at the same time.  That’s why video games are natural teachers.  Having fun gives your kid motivation to keep on practicing, which is the only way to learn skills.
  • Video games can make your kid creative. A study by the Michigan State University’s Children and Technology Project found a relation between video game playing and greater creativity, regardless of gender, race or type of video game played. (In contrast, use of cell phones, the Internet and computers other than video games was unrelated to creativity, the study found).
  • Video games can improve your kid’s decision making speed. People who played action-based video and computer games made decisions 25% faster than others without sacrificing accuracy, according to a study from the University of Rochester. Other studies suggests that most expert gamers can make choices and act on them up to six times a second—four times faster than most people, and can pay attention to more than six things at once without getting confused, compared to only four by the average person. Surprisingly, the violent action games that often worry parents most had the strongest beneficial effect on the brain, according to cognitive neuroscientist Daphne Bavelier, who studies the effect of action games at Switzerland’s University of Geneva and the University of Rochester in New York.
  • Video games increase your kid’s self-confidence and self-esteem as he masters games.   In many games, the levels of difficulty are adjustable.  As a beginner, your kid begins at the easy level and by constant practicing and slowly building skills, he becomes confident in handling more difficult challenges.  Since the cost of failure is lower, he does not fear making mistakes.  He takes more risks and explores more.  Your kid can transfer this attitude to real life.
  • Games that involve multiple players encourage your child to work cooperatively to achieve his goals. Your kid learns to listen to the ideas of others, formulate plans with other kids, and distribute tasks based on skills. Some online games are even played internationally, and this can introduce your kid to players of different nationalities and cultures.  This fosters friendships among different people.
  • Video games that require your kid to be active, such as Dance Dance Revolution and Nintendo Wii Boxing give your kid a Electronic Cigarette good workout. When playing these active games for 10 minutes, your kid spends energy equal to or exceeding that produced by spending the same amount of time on a three miles an hour threadmill walk.
  • Kids are not necessarily drawn to video games because of their violence. The attraction lies in their being rewarded by awesome displays of explosions, fireworks, and yes, blood splattering. Also, violent games have the most emotional appeal for kids. But these factors are only secondary to what kids actually enjoy in these games – the opportunity to develop and master skills and have the freedom to make choices in the game universe.
  • Violent video games may act as a release of pent-up aggression and frustration of your kid.  When your kid vents his frustration and anger in his game, this diffuses his stress. Games can provide a positive aggression outlet the same way as football and other violent sports.
  • Playing video games is safer than having your teens do drugs, alcohol and street racing in the real world.

    Negative Effects of Computer Games on Children

  • Most of the bad effects of video games are blamed on the violence they contain.  Children who play more violent video games are more likely to have increased aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and decreased prosocial helping, according to a scientific study (Anderson & Bushman, 2001).  The effect of video game violence in kids is worsened by the games’ interactive nature.  In many games, kids are rewarded for being more violent.  The act of violence is done repeatedly.  The child is in control of the violence and experiences the violence in his own eyes (killings, kicking, stabbing and shooting).  This active participation, repetition and reward are effective tools for learning behavior.  Indeed, many studies seem to indicate that violent video games may be related to aggressive behavior (such as Anderson & Dill, 2000; Gentile, Lynch & Walsh, 2004).  However, the evidence is not consistent and this issue is far from settled.   Many experts including Henry Jenkins of Massachusetts Institute of Technology have noted that there is a decreased rate of juvenile crime whch coincides with the popularity of games such as Death Race, Mortal Kombat, Doom and Grand Theft auto. He concludes that teenage players are able to leave the emotional effects of the game behind when the game is over.   Indeed there are cases of teenagers who commit violent crimes who also spend great amount of time playing video games such as those involved in the Columbine and Newport cases. It appears that there will always be violent people, and it just so happen that many of them also enjoy playing violent video games.
  • Too much video game playing makes your kid socially isolated.  Also, he may spend less time in other activities such as doing homework, reading, sports, and interacting with the family and friends.
  • Some video games teach kids the wrong values.  Violent behavior, vengeance and aggression are rewarded.  Negotiating and other nonviolent solutions are often not options.  Women are often portrayed as weaker characters that are helpless or sexually provocative.
  • Games can confuse reality and fantasy.
  • Academic achievement may be negatively related to over-all time spent playing video games. Studies have shown that the more time a kid spends playing video games, the poorer is his performance in school.  (Anderson & Dill, 2000; Gentile, Lynch & Walsh, 2004). A study by Argosy University’s Minnesota School on Professional Psychology found that video game addicts argue a lot with their teachers, fight a lot with their friends, and score lower grades than others who play video games less often. Other studies show that many game players routinely skip their homework to play games, and many students admitted that their video game habits are often responsible for poor school grades.
  • Video games may also have bad effects on some children’s health, including obesity, video-induced seizures. and postural, muscular and skeletal disorders, such as tendonitis, nerve compression, carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • When playing online, your kid can pick up bad language and behavior from other people, and may make your kid vulnerable to online dangers.
  • A study by the Minneapolis-based National Institute for Media and the Family suggests that video games can be addictive for kids, and that the kids’ addiction to video games increases their depression and anxiety levels. Addicted kids also exhibit social phobias. Not surprisingly, kids addicted to video games see their school performance suffer.
  • Kids spending too much time playing video games may exhibit impulsive behavior and have attention problems. This is according to a new study published in the February 2012 issue of the Journal of Psychology and Popular Media Culture. For the study, attention problems were defined as difficulty engaging in or sustaining behavior to reach a goal.
  • Recommendation for Video Games
  • Monitor video game play the same way you need to monitor television and other media.
  • Be a loving, attentive parent who disciplines your child well.  An aggressive child is more a product of dysfunctional parenting than anything else, including violent games and TV.  According to Los Angeles-based psychotherapist Robert Butterworth, PhD, dysfunctional parenting, children with little guilt, and accessibility to firearms with little parental supervision can create violent children.   “Most children who commit violent crime show an early combination of personality and family factors that include having trouble getting along with playmates in preschool,” Butterworth says. “By second or third grade they’re doing poorly in school, and have few friends. By the age of 10 they’re picking fights and getting labeled by their peers as social outcasts.”  What’s more “they typically come from families where parents are poor at disciplining because they are indifferent, neglectful, too coercive or they use harsh physical punishment with little love.”
  • Although playing video games can be a learning experience, give your kid a variety of entertaining things to learn from, so your kid will not be addicted to just one thing.   Be sure to make him read books, play sports, interact with other kids, and watch good TV.  Everything should be taken in moderation.  The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children not spend more than one to two hours per day in front of all electronic screens, including TV, DVDs, videos, video games (handheld, console, or computer), and computers (for non-academic use). This means seven to fourteen hours per week total.
  • Limit the amount of time they could play and also used the video game ratings to limit the content of the games have children who do better in school and also get into fewer fights.
  • Monitor the effect of video games on your child.  Observe his behavior.  If it appears that he is becoming more aggressive with his siblings or friends during the period that he is playing violent games, stop him from playing the games.  If he becomes interested in history after playing historical games, then the game is beneficial to him.
  • What to look for in choosing a video game
  • Decide what is acceptable in your home and if you think violent games are not acceptable, explain to your kid the reason why it might be bad for him.
  • Check the Ratings of the game before you buy it or allow your kid to play it.  Check its rating which is indicated in the box.  Note the title and cover picture.  If they have themes of sex and/or violence, then these themes are in the game.  If possible, be familiar with the game or read its reviews in the internet.  Sometimes, the “bad” part of the game is hidden in the higher levels.  Do not neglect supervising your kid as a parent.
  • Consider your child’s maturity level to determine which games are suitable for him.  Chronological age is not necessarily a measure of maturity.
  • Pick games that require the player to come up with strategies, and make decisions in a game environment that is more complex than punching, stealing, and killing.
  • Look for games involving multiple players to encourage group play.

According to Los Angeles-based psychotherapist Robert Butterworth, PhD , you should “evaluate the shows and games not just in terms of violence or obscenity, but in terms of the mental engagement that they require.  Boys need to slay dragons and play games with action figures of cowboys and Indians,” he says. “They need to be in a fantasy where they are conquering heroes; suppressing this may have long-term effects that may not be good.”

10 Health Benefits of Dark Chocolate

Yes, I know, I know. That title isn’t exactly comforting. Although it seems too good to be true, dark chocolate can actually be good for you! When consumed in moderation, this delicious treat has some powerful health benefits. And the truth is that you should probably be eating dark chocolate on a semi-regular basis because the stuff is pretty dang good for you. Following are 10 Health Benefits of Dark Chocolate to indulge:

1.  Good for Your Heart

Studies show that eating a small amount of dark chocolate two or three times each week can help lower your blood pressure.  Dark chocolate improves blood flow and may help prevent the formation of blood clots. Eating dark chocolate may also prevent arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

2.  Good for Your Brain

Dark chocolate increases blood flow to the brain as well as to the heart, so it can help improve cognitive function. Dark chocolate also helps reduce your risk of stroke.

Dark chocolate also contains several chemical compounds that have a positive effect on your mood and cognitive health. Chocolate contains phenylethylamine (PEA), the same chemical your brain creates when you feel like you’re falling in love. PEA encourages your brain to release endorphins, so eating dark chocolate will make you feel happier.

Dark chocolate also contains caffeine, a mild stimulant. However, dark chocolate contains much less caffeine than coffee. A 1.5 ounce bar of dark chocolate contains 27 mg of caffeine, compared to the 200 mg found in an eight ounce cup of coffee.

3.  Helps to Control Blood Sugar

Dark chocolate helps keep your blood vessels healthy and your circulation unimpaired to protect against type 2 diabetes. The flavonoids in dark chocolate also help reduce insulin resistance by helping your cells to function normally and regain the ability to use your body’s insulin efficiently. Dark chocolate also has a low glycemic index, meaning it won’t cause huge spikes in blood sugar levels.

4. Protects Your Skin

German researchers found that the flavonoids in dark chocolate absorb UV light, help protect and increase blood flow to the skin, and improve skin’s hydration and complexion.

5. Full of Antioxidants

Dark chocolate is loaded with antioxidants. Antioxidants help free your body of free radicals, which cause oxidative damage to cells. Free radicals are implicated in the aging process and may be a cause of cancer, so eating antioxidant rich foods like dark chocolate can protect you from many vs prosolution types of cancer and slow the signs of aging.

6. Contains Theobromine

Dark chocolate contains theobromine, which has been shown to harden tooth enamel. That means that dark chocolate, unlike most other sweets, lowers your risk of getting cavities if you practice proper dental hygiene.

Theobromine is also a mild stimulant, though not as strong as caffeine. It can, however, help to suppress coughs.

7. High in Vitamins and Minerals

Dark chocolate contains a number of vitamins and minerals that can support your health. Dark chocolate contains some of the following vitamins and minerals in high concentrations:

  • Potassium
  • Copper
  • Magnesium
  • Iron

The copper and potassium in dark chocolate help prevent against stroke and cardiovascular ailments. The iron in chocolate protects against iron deficiency anemia, and the magnesium in chocolate helps prevent type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease.

8. Amazingly Good For Teeth

Chocolate lovers who indulge may need to be a wee bit concerned about weight but there’s no need to worry about tooth decay.

That’s because sugar alone will not produce tooth decay. And, in fact, a common ingredient found in dark chocolate actually reduces the growth of dental plaque.

9. How it is Good For Kids

Researcher and pediatrician Professor Melissa Wake said they found little difference in blood pressure before and after consuming the two buttons of dark chocolate.

Children aged 10-12 were given dark chocolate with a high antioxidant content every day.

Blood pressure, weight, height, body fat and waist circumference were measured throughout the study. Researchers found there was no significant weight gain.

10. How dark chocolate helps Pregnant Women

Your nutritional needs change during pregnancy, and some foods become unsafe to consume. Dark chocolate can provide benefits during pregnancy as long as you consume it in moderation.

Dark chocolate contains caffeine. During pregnancy, caffeine can decrease blood flow to the placenta, and large amounts may increase the risk of miscarriage. It is also a stimulant and can raise your heart rate and blood pressure. The March of Dimes recommends having only 200 mg or less of caffeine a day during pregnancy. Although 1 oz. of dark chocolate only contains 20 mg of caffeine, large amounts of dark chocolate can add up to an unsafe amount, especially if you consume other caffeine sources like coffee or soft drinks.

I hope that i justified myself generous enough to satisfy all your queries. Rest you can comment in the Comment section.

10 Interesting Facts about Dreams

Dreaming is one of the most mysterious and interesting experiences in our lives.
During the Roman Era some dreams were even submitted to the Roman Senate for analysis and dream interpretation. They were thought to be messages from the gods. Dream interpreters even accompanied military leaders into battles and campaigns!

In addition to this, it is also known that many artists have received their creative ideas from their dreams.

But what do we actually know about dreams?
Here are 10 interesting facts about dreams – enjoy and what’s most important, don’t forget to share your dream stories in the comment section!

1. You Forget 90% of Your Dreams

Within 5 minutes of waking half of your dream is forgotten. Within 10, 90% is gone.

2. Blind People also Dream

People who became blind after birth can see images in their dreams. People who are born blind do not see any images, but have dreams equally vivid involving their other senses of sound, smell, touch and emotion.

3. Everybody Dreams

Every human being dreams (except in cases of extreme psychological disorder). If you think you are not dreaming – you just forget your dreams.

4. In Our Dreams We Only See Faces That We already Know

Our mind is not inventing faces – in our dreams we see real faces of real people that we have seen during our life but may not know or remember. We have all seen hundreds of thousands of faces throughout our lives, so we have an endless supply of characters for our brain to utilize during our dreams.

5. Not Everybody Dreams in Color

A full 12% of sighted people dream exclusively in black and white. The remaining number dream in full color. Studies from 1915 Meratol through to the 1950s maintained that the majority of dreams were in black and white, but these results began to change in the 1960s. Today only 4.4% of the dreams of under-25 year-olds are in black and white. Recent research has suggested that those changing results may be linked to the switch from black-and-white film and TV to color media.

6. Dreams are Symbolic

If you dream about some particular subject it is not often that the dream is about that. Dreams speak in a deeply symbolic language. Whatever symbol your dream picks on it is most unlikely to be a symbol for itself.

7. Emotions

The most common emotion experienced in dreams is anxiety. Negative emotions are more common than positive ones.

8. You can have four to seven dreams in one night.

On average you can dream anywhere from one or two hours every night.

9. Animals Dream Too

Studies have been done on many different animals, and they all show the same brain waves during dreaming sleep as humans. Watch a dog sleeping sometime. The paws move like they are running and they make yipping sounds as if they are chasing something in a dream.

10. Body Paralysis

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a normal stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eyes. REM sleep in adult humans typically occupies 20-25% of total sleep, about 90-120 minutes of a night’s sleep.

During REM sleep the body is paralyzed by a mechanism in the brain in order to prevent the movements which occur in the dream from causing the physical body to move. However, it is possible for this mechanism to be triggered before, during, or after normal sleep while the brain awakens.

20 Amazing Facts Of Petra

Petra means “rock” in Greek, and that’s a good name for an ancient city.This city lies in a small desert valley completely surrounded by towering sandstone cliffs.Petra was the capital of an Arab people known as Nabataens around 6th century BC and was a center of the ancient caravan trade. It was called Petra by the Greeks and Romans, but its real Arab name is still not known for sure. Petra eventually became a Roman outpost and was later a stronghold of the Crusaders.

At its peak the city of Petra was home to some 20,000 Nabataeans who, in the midst of the desert, built an ingenious system of waterways to provide their city with the precious liquid.

Since the early 1800s, when it was “rediscovered,” clues to daily life in this “lost city of stone” are being unearthed and today we are beginning to see once again what Petra looked like 2,000 years ago.

facts about petra jordan :

1. city was carved into the walls of desert canyon

2. The treasury its most famous structure, is estimated to be 2000 years ago .

3. Carvings on the treasury have been damaged by the Bedouin who used it for target practice

4. Salt blown in from the Dead Sea is crystallizing in the pores of the sandstone and slowly weakening the structures

5. The Great Earthquake describes the violent earthquake of A.D. 363 that wreaked considerable damage to Petra, from which the city never fully recovered, and features a timeline of earthquakes that occurred within a 400-kilometer (250 mile) radius of Petra from the first century B.C. to the eighth century A.D.

6. Arches The Byzantine Era explores the history of Petra in the fifth and sixth centuries A.D., when Petra became an important center of Christianity within the Byzantine realm. Highlights in this section include a sixth-century A.D. marble pulpit from a Byzantine church called the Blue Chapel, which was part of a Online Casino building complex that evidently housed one of the city’s prominent citizens, and a sixth-century A.D. scroll fragment, written in cursive Greek, that is part of an extensive will of a wealthy man named Obodianus, dictated from his sickbed.

7. Petra consists of over 800 carved tombs

8. 80% of the original carvings are thought to be lost

9. Highlights in this section include the two halves of an important ancient Nabataean statue which have been reunited for the first time in more than 1,500 years.

10. Highlights include a monumental 2,100-pound sandstone bust of Dushara, Petra’s primary male deity.

11.Another very noticeable change is in the very center of the site, the hillsides lying on either side of the Roman Colonnaded Street which ran through the heart of Petra.  When I first saw them, these were simply hillsides.  Nowadays you’ll explore temples, the Cathedral, and the extensive Great Temple complex with its temples, garden and pool complex, Odeon and other intriguing features.

12. The Petra basin boasts over 800 individual monuments, including buildings, tombs, baths, funerary halls, temples, arched gateways, and colonnaded streets, that were mostly carved from the kaleidoscopic sandstone by the technical and artistic genius of its inhabitants.

13. Petra sights are at their best in early morning and late afternoon, when the sun warms the multicolored stones, you can view the majesty of Petra as it was seen first when discovered in 1812 after being lost by the 16th century for almost 300 years!

14. Petra was used as one of the sets of Indiana Jones.

15. Inside of the Treasury there are hidden coins.

16. Petra is an Unesco World Heritage Site.

17.The only access to Petra is though a 300 meter high canyon.

18.Petra was occupied in 1,200 BCE, but made the capital in 312 BCE.

19.It is at Petra were King Aretas called for the arrest of the Apostle Paul at the time of his conversion.

Experience Petra In 3D

20 Facts Of Gold (Possibly Unknown)

Gold is a remarkable, rare metal, with an unparalleled combination of chemical and physical properties. It is the only yellow metal and bears its name from the Old English word for yellow, ‘geolu’. It is also the only metal that forms no oxide film on it’s surface in air at normal temperatures, meaning that it will never rust or tarnish.

Some Amazing Facts Of Gold

1. Gold is so soft and malleable that an ounce of it could be stretched into a wire 50 miles in length, or be flattened into a sheet 100 square feet in area.

2. Despite its softness, gold is so incredibly dense and heavy that a cubic foot of it weighs half a ton. In 1875, English economist Stanley Jevons calculated that if the 20 million British Pounds in transactions that cleared the London Bankers Clearing House each day were paid in gold coins, it would require 80 strong horses to haul them away.

3. Much of today’s gold supply comes not from digging deep mines in search of ore-bearing veins, but from sifting through vast quantities of soil for loose grains eroded from mountains and carried by flowing water. In order to extract South Africa’s annual output of 500 tons of gold, for example, about 70 million tons of earth must be milled — an amount equivalent to the Egyptian pyramid of Cheops in volume.

4.  While no one knows for certain how most heavier elements like gold are made, what is known about the stellar origin of all elements is that a star’s nuclear furnace can only produce nuclei up to the size of iron (atomic number 26 – gold is 79). The best guess for the source of all heavier elements is the only force in the universe with the enormous energy needed to fuse large nuclei: a supernova explosion. So the next time you hold gold in your hand, try to imagine mind-blowing circumstances of its birth, a genesis that must reach back to before the origin of our Solar System.

5. According to the World Gold Council, about 70 percent of the world’s gold output is used for making jewelry. Only about 13 percent is used to make coins, put in nations’ central banks or purchased by investors. The rest goes to a variety of uses, such as industrial applications and dentistry. India is the biggest consumer of gold, snapping up about a quarter of the world’s supply. According to an article in Diamond World magazine, the South Asian nation imports about 800 tons of gold annually, and uses about 600 tons of it to make jewelry.

6. The karat, the measurement of the purity of gold, originally was a measure of weight. The unit was named after the fruit of the leguminous carob tree, whose pods each weigh about one-fifth of a gram.

7. Gold is prized not just by jewelers and bankers but by Ativan Dosage electronics manufacturers because its high degree of thermal and electrical conductivity makes it an excellent material for efficient wires and contacts. It’s also durable and highly resistant to corrosion, and so sufficiently malleable that gold alloys can be drawn into extremely thin diameters without breaking.

8.The vast amounts of gold and silver seized by Spanish conquistadors and shipped back across the Atlantic in galleons increased the European supply of precious metals five-fold between 1492 and 1600. But all that gold actually weakened the Spanish empire, rather than enriching it, because the Spanish used it to buy consumer imports rather than investing the wealth in productive enterprises that would generate income. That drove up prices, which made the gold worth less, and Spain wound up amassing huge foreign debts that ultimately led to its decline as an international power.

9. In relatively pure form, gold has a characteristic sun-yellow color. But when combined in alloys with other metals — silver, copper, nickel, platinum, palladium, tellurium and iron, among others — it can take on hues ranging from silver-white to green to orange-red.

10.During the fourteenth century, drinking molten gold and crushed emeralds was used as a treatment for the bubonic plaque.

11.Gold and copper were the first metals to be discovered by humans around 5000 B.C. and are the only two non-white-colored metals

12. The 40,000 miners who joined the California Gold Rush in 1849 were called “49ers”. Only a very few ever got rich.

13. Gold is almost indestructible which implies that it is immune to physical destruction of any kind and can be recycled and used as many times by the owner.

14.Gold is edible, and is put into fruit, jelly snacks, coffee, and tea in some Asian countries. Even Europeans are known to put gold leaf in bottles of liquor.

15. Outside the lunar module of the United States “Apollo ” airship was coated with gold foil, with the aim to protect astronauts from radiation. Even now, the helmet worn by astronauts is still coated with a thin gold membrane to protect astronaut’s eyes from intense light.

16. Gold is the only precious metal that is yellow or golden in colour.

17.Two thirds of the world’s supply of gold comes from South Africa. US sources include South Dakota and Nevada. The UK has a small amount in Wales.

18. Only 88000 tons of gold have been mined from the earth since records were kept.

19. In gold reserve, the United States ranks first in the world. However, if included the gold ornaments, then India will grab the top spot, twenty percent of the gold used as decoration in the world, were used in Indian saris.

20. The methods of refining gold will destroy the environment in some extent. Gold mine will dumped a lot of cyanide into the ditch, and pour the nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides into the air.