Effects of Computer Games on Children

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Video games have been available to consumers for the last 30 years. They are a unique form of entertainment, because they encourage players to become a part of the game’s script. Today’s sophisticated video games require players to pay constant attention to the game, rather than passively watching a movie. This has both positive and negative impacts on players. Several studies have been published that explore these impacts on today’s children.

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Positive Effects of Computer Games on Children

Video games give your child’s brain a real workout.  In many video games, the skills required to win involve abstract and high level thinking.  These skills are not even taught at school.  Some of the mental skills trained by video games include:

  •    Following instructions
  •   Problem solving and logic
  •   Hand-eye coordination, fine motor and spatial skills. In shooting games, the character may be running and shooting at the same time. This requires the real-world player to keep track of the position of the character, where he/she is heading, their speed, where the gun is aiming, if the gunfire is hitting the enemy, and so on. All these factors need to be taken into account, and then the player must then coordinate the brain’s interpretation and reaction with the movement in their hands and fingertips. This process requires a great deal of eye-hand coordination and visual-spatial ability to be successful.  Research also suggests that people can learn iconic, spatial, and visual attention skills from video games.  There have been even studies with adults showing that experience with video games is related to better surgical skills. Also, a reason given by experts as to why fighter pilots of today are more skillful is that this generation’s pilots are being weaned on video games.
  •   Resource management and logistics.  The player learn to manage resources that are limited, and decide the best use of resources, the same way as in real life.  This skill is honed in strategy games such as SimCity, Age of Empires, and Railroad Tycoon
  •   Multitasking, simultaneous tracking of many shifting variables and managing multiple objectives.  In strategy games, for instance, while developing a city, an unexpected surprise like an enemy might emerge.  This forces the player to be flexible and quickly change tactics.
  • o    Quick thinking, making fast analysis and decisions.  Sometimes the player does this almost every second of the game giving the brain a real workout. According to researchers at the University of Rochester, led by Daphne Bavelier, a cognitive scientist, games simulating stressful events such as those found in battle or action games could be a training tool for real-world situations. The study suggests that playing action video games primes the brain to make quick decisions. Video games can be used to train soldiers and surgeons, according to the study.
  •    Strategy and anticipation – Steven Johnson, author of Everything Bad is Good For You: How Today’s Popular Culture is Actually Making Us Smarter, calls this “telescoping.” Gamers must deal with immediate problems while keeping their long-term goals on their horizon.
  •    Developing reading and math skills – Young gamers force themselves to read to get instructions, follow storylines of games, and get information from the game texts.  Also, using math skills is important to win in many games that involves quantitative analysis like managing resources.
  •  Perseverance – In higher levels of a game, players usually fail the first time around, but they keep on trying until they succeed and move on to the next level.
  •     Pattern recognition – Games have internal logic in them, and players figure it out by recognizing patterns.
  •    Estimating skills
  •    Inductive reasoning and hypothesis testing – James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, says that playing a video game is similar to working through a science problem. Like students in a laboratory, gamers must come up with a hypothesis. For example, players in some games constantly try out combinations of weapons and powers to use to defeat an enemy.  If one does not work, they change hypothesis and try the next one.  Video games are goal-driven experiences, says Gee, which are fundamental to learning.
  •     Mapping – Gamers use in-game maps or build maps on their heads to navigate around virtual worlds.
  •   Memory
  •   Improved ability to rapidly and accurately recognize visual information – A study from Beth Israel Medical Center NY, found a direct link between skill at video gaming and skill at keyhole, or laparoscopic, surgery.
  •   Reasoned judgments
  •   Taking risks – Winning in any game involves a player’s courage to take risks. Most games do not reward players who play safely.
  •   How to respond to challenges
  •  How to respond to frustrations
  •   How to explore and rethink goals
  •   Teamwork and cooperation when played with others – many games are played online and involve cooperation with other online players in order to win.
  •   Simulation, real world skills.  The most well known simulations are flight simulators, which attempt to mimic the reality of flying a plane. All of the controls, including airspeed, wing angles, altimeter, and so on, are displayed for the player, as well as a visual representation of the world, and are updated in real time.
  • Video games introduce your kid to computer technology and the online world.  You should recognize that we are now living in a high-tech, sophisticated world.  Video games make your kid adapt and be comfortable with the concepts of computing.  This is particularly important for girls who typically are not as interested in high technology as much as boys.
  • Video games allow you and your kid to play together and can be a good bonding activity.  Some games are attractive to kids as well as adults, and they could be something that they share in common.  When your child knows more than you, he can teach you how to play and this allows you to understand your child’s skills and talents.
  • Video games make learning fun.   Your kid likes games because of the colors, the animation, the eye candy, as well as the interactivity and the challenge and the rewards of winning.  The best way to learn is when the learner is having fun at the same time.  That’s why video games are natural teachers.  Having fun gives your kid motivation to keep on practicing, which is the only way to learn skills.
  • Video games can make your kid creative. A study by the Michigan State University’s Children and Technology Project found a relation between video game playing and greater creativity, regardless of gender, race or type of video game played. (In contrast, use of cell phones, the Internet and computers other than video games was unrelated to creativity, the study found).
  • Video games can improve your kid’s decision making speed. People who played action-based video and computer games made decisions 25% faster than others without sacrificing accuracy, according to a study from the University of Rochester. Other studies suggests that most expert gamers can make choices and act on them up to six times a second—four times faster than most people, and can pay attention to more than six things at once without getting confused, compared to only four by the average person. Surprisingly, the violent action games that often worry parents most had the strongest beneficial effect on the brain, according to cognitive neuroscientist Daphne Bavelier, who studies the effect of action games at Switzerland’s University of Geneva and the University of Rochester in New York.
  • Video games increase your kid’s self-confidence and self-esteem as he masters games.   In many games, the levels of difficulty are adjustable.  As a beginner, your kid begins at the easy level and by constant practicing and slowly building skills, he becomes confident in handling more difficult challenges.  Since the cost of failure is lower, he does not fear making mistakes.  He takes more risks and explores more.  Your kid can transfer this attitude to real life.
  • Games that involve multiple players encourage your child to work cooperatively to achieve his goals. Your kid learns to listen to the ideas of others, formulate plans with other kids, and distribute tasks based on skills. Some online games are even played internationally, and this can introduce your kid to players of different nationalities and cultures.  This fosters friendships among different people.
  • Video games that require your kid to be active, such as Dance Dance Revolution and Nintendo Wii Boxing give your kid a Electronic Cigarette good workout. When playing these active games for 10 minutes, your kid spends energy equal to or exceeding that produced by spending the same amount of time on a three miles an hour threadmill walk.
  • Kids are not necessarily drawn to video games because of their violence. The attraction lies in their being rewarded by awesome displays of explosions, fireworks, and yes, blood splattering. Also, violent games have the most emotional appeal for kids. But these factors are only secondary to what kids actually enjoy in these games – the opportunity to develop and master skills and have the freedom to make choices in the game universe.
  • Violent video games may act as a release of pent-up aggression and frustration of your kid.  When your kid vents his frustration and anger in his game, this diffuses his stress. Games can provide a positive aggression outlet the same way as football and other violent sports.
  • Playing video games is safer than having your teens do drugs, alcohol and street racing in the real world.

    Negative Effects of Computer Games on Children

  • Most of the bad effects of video games are blamed on the violence they contain.  Children who play more violent video games are more likely to have increased aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and decreased prosocial helping, according to a scientific study (Anderson & Bushman, 2001).  The effect of video game violence in kids is worsened by the games’ interactive nature.  In many games, kids are rewarded for being more violent.  The act of violence is done repeatedly.  The child is in control of the violence and experiences the violence in his own eyes (killings, kicking, stabbing and shooting).  This active participation, repetition and reward are effective tools for learning behavior.  Indeed, many studies seem to indicate that violent video games may be related to aggressive behavior (such as Anderson & Dill, 2000; Gentile, Lynch & Walsh, 2004).  However, the evidence is not consistent and this issue is far from settled.   Many experts including Henry Jenkins of Massachusetts Institute of Technology have noted that there is a decreased rate of juvenile crime whch coincides with the popularity of games such as Death Race, Mortal Kombat, Doom and Grand Theft auto. He concludes that teenage players are able to leave the emotional effects of the game behind when the game is over.   Indeed there are cases of teenagers who commit violent crimes who also spend great amount of time playing video games such as those involved in the Columbine and Newport cases. It appears that there will always be violent people, and it just so happen that many of them also enjoy playing violent video games.
  • Too much video game playing makes your kid socially isolated.  Also, he may spend less time in other activities such as doing homework, reading, sports, and interacting with the family and friends.
  • Some video games teach kids the wrong values.  Violent behavior, vengeance and aggression are rewarded.  Negotiating and other nonviolent solutions are often not options.  Women are often portrayed as weaker characters that are helpless or sexually provocative.
  • Games can confuse reality and fantasy.
  • Academic achievement may be negatively related to over-all time spent playing video games. Studies have shown that the more time a kid spends playing video games, the poorer is his performance in school.  (Anderson & Dill, 2000; Gentile, Lynch & Walsh, 2004). A study by Argosy University’s Minnesota School on Professional Psychology found that video game addicts argue a lot with their teachers, fight a lot with their friends, and score lower grades than others who play video games less often. Other studies show that many game players routinely skip their homework to play games, and many students admitted that their video game habits are often responsible for poor school grades.
  • Video games may also have bad effects on some children’s health, including obesity, video-induced seizures. and postural, muscular and skeletal disorders, such as tendonitis, nerve compression, carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • When playing online, your kid can pick up bad language and behavior from other people, and may make your kid vulnerable to online dangers.
  • A study by the Minneapolis-based National Institute for Media and the Family suggests that video games can be addictive for kids, and that the kids’ addiction to video games increases their depression and anxiety levels. Addicted kids also exhibit social phobias. Not surprisingly, kids addicted to video games see their school performance suffer.
  • Kids spending too much time playing video games may exhibit impulsive behavior and have attention problems. This is according to a new study published in the February 2012 issue of the Journal of Psychology and Popular Media Culture. For the study, attention problems were defined as difficulty engaging in or sustaining behavior to reach a goal.
  • Recommendation for Video Games
  • Monitor video game play the same way you need to monitor television and other media.
  • Be a loving, attentive parent who disciplines your child well.  An aggressive child is more a product of dysfunctional parenting than anything else, including violent games and TV.  According to Los Angeles-based psychotherapist Robert Butterworth, PhD, dysfunctional parenting, children with little guilt, and accessibility to firearms with little parental supervision can create violent children.   “Most children who commit violent crime show an early combination of personality and family factors that include having trouble getting along with playmates in preschool,” Butterworth says. “By second or third grade they’re doing poorly in school, and have few friends. By the age of 10 they’re picking fights and getting labeled by their peers as social outcasts.”  What’s more “they typically come from families where parents are poor at disciplining because they are indifferent, neglectful, too coercive or they use harsh physical punishment with little love.”
  • Although playing video games can be a learning experience, give your kid a variety of entertaining things to learn from, so your kid will not be addicted to just one thing.   Be sure to make him read books, play sports, interact with other kids, and watch good TV.  Everything should be taken in moderation.  The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children not spend more than one to two hours per day in front of all electronic screens, including TV, DVDs, videos, video games (handheld, console, or computer), and computers (for non-academic use). This means seven to fourteen hours per week total.
  • Limit the amount of time they could play and also used the video game ratings to limit the content of the games have children who do better in school and also get into fewer fights.
  • Monitor the effect of video games on your child.  Observe his behavior.  If it appears that he is becoming more aggressive with his siblings or friends during the period that he is playing violent games, stop him from playing the games.  If he becomes interested in history after playing historical games, then the game is beneficial to him.
  • What to look for in choosing a video game
  • Decide what is acceptable in your home and if you think violent games are not acceptable, explain to your kid the reason why it might be bad for him.
  • Check the Ratings of the game before you buy it or allow your kid to play it.  Check its rating which is indicated in the box.  Note the title and cover picture.  If they have themes of sex and/or violence, then these themes are in the game.  If possible, be familiar with the game or read its reviews in the internet.  Sometimes, the “bad” part of the game is hidden in the higher levels.  Do not neglect supervising your kid as a parent.
  • Consider your child’s maturity level to determine which games are suitable for him.  Chronological age is not necessarily a measure of maturity.
  • Pick games that require the player to come up with strategies, and make decisions in a game environment that is more complex than punching, stealing, and killing.
  • Look for games involving multiple players to encourage group play.

According to Los Angeles-based psychotherapist Robert Butterworth, PhD , you should “evaluate the shows and games not just in terms of violence or obscenity, but in terms of the mental engagement that they require.  Boys need to slay dragons and play games with action figures of cowboys and Indians,” he says. “They need to be in a fantasy where they are conquering heroes; suppressing this may have long-term effects that may not be good.”

10 Most Famous Streets of London

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Just as London is famed for its many landmarks and attractions, so too is it home to a number of streets whose names are known across the globe. Whether it’s because of their renowned shopping opportunities, illustrious theatres or even their use as a setting in an historic work of fiction, there are certain streets that will always attract visitors who come to London. Here is the Most Famous Streets of London.

The Mall
The Queen & other royals travels along the mall during special occasions including weddings.

Whitehall
The Cenotaph in memory of those who gave their lives in since 1918- The Foreign Office –

Free to do
London Park
Stroll through the royal parks & wonderful well kept gardens.
Feed the ducks.
Sit and have a picnic.

Downing Street
The home to the Prime Minister & when I was a child you could stand opposite number 10. Arguably one of the most recognised street names in Europe, Downing Street is home to the Prime Minister at Number 10, as well as his right hand man the Chancellor of the Exchequer at Number 11. Sadly, it is not possible to walk down the street, as it has been gated off to the public since 1989 to protect the Prime Minister from possible terrorist attacks.

Knightsbridge
Visitors from around the world flock to Knightsbridge and Brompton Road to visit the illustrious shops and department stores. This is the place to go if you’re looking for prestigious brands and up-to-the-minute trends from the world’s fashion elite. Best known for Harrods and Harvey Nichols, you’ll also find a whole host of big-name fashion designers on Sloane Street. Showing Knightsbridge caters to all tastes, there’s a big branch of Topshop opposite Harrods!

Regent Street
Harrods is by no means the only well known name in the city, with Regent Street’s celebrated Hamley’s enjoying its status as one of the world’s largest toy stores since it opened in 1981, and Piccadilly’s Fortnum and Mason another household name.

Saville Row
Known worldwide as the home of bespoke British tailoring, Savile Row is the place to come if you want a handmade suit crafted the old-fashioned way (with a price Cialis 10mg tag to match). Credited with inventing the tuxedo Henry Poole & Co – also the first Savile Row tailor – is still cutting cloth at no. 15. Other big names include Gieves & Hawkes, H. Huntsman & Sons and Ozwald Boateng. On the corner of this “golden mile” of tailoring you’ll also find the flagship Abercrombie & Fitch store.

Portobello Road
Famous worldwide thanks to the film of the same name, Notting Hill offers a vast array of small, unique shops selling unusual and vintage clothing, rare antiques, quirky gifts, books and organic food. There’s also the unmissable Portobello Road Market – a mile-long (1.6km) street with a vibrant array of different stalls set out daily. Nearby Westbourne Grove offers more high-end shopping, with stylish designer shops dotted between a mix of quirky boho boutiques, hip cafes and art galleries.

The Strand
The Strand is also home to London’s Royal Courts of Justice, as well as the Savoy Theatre, which in 1881 was the first ever public building to make use of electric light. Another theatre which owes much of its fame to a single event is Haymarket’s Her Majesty’s Theatre, which achieved a level of infamy in 1984 when much-loved British comedian Tommy Cooper quite literally died on stage after suffering a heart attack in the middle of his performance during a live television broadcast.

Abbey Road
Of course, one of the most famous albums ever recorded is named after a London street. The Beatles’ Abbey Road album takes its name from the location of the band’s recording studio in St John’s Wood, where the Liverpudlian megastars recorded all but one of their albums. The iconic album cover, featuring the band walking across a zebra crossing, was also photographed here, and the crossing has since been awarded listed status.

Fleet Street
In the world of fiction, Fleet Street, once home to the offices of many important newspapers, is also known as the home of the ‘demon barber’ Sweeney Todd, who operated his gruesome barber shop along the street. However, the most famous of London’s fictional residents is undoubtedly Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s detective, Sherlock Holmes, who resides at number 221b Baker Street in North London.

Top 15 Waterfalls of the world

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Our Earth is so beautiful and enriched with such a spectacular resources and views that one can enjoy heaven on it. Waterfalls is one of such resources. Here is a list of top 15 waterfalls of the world, but i completely agree with the fact that this list is not transient because it’s completely subjective and lighted to each person’s experience with the falls being named.Nonetheless based on popular demand, we’ve finally come up with our own list of the favorites that we’ve personally visited.And i am sure that this list will surely change as we will further visit more waterfalls from around the world.

1. Khone Falls

The Khone Falls and Pha Pheng Falls (Lao: ຂກົກນເກະ ຜກະ ຜເກະງ) is a waterfall located in Champasak Province on the Mekong River in southern Laos, near the border with Cambodia. The Khone Falls are the largest in southeast Asia and they are the main reason that the Mekong is not fully navigable into China. The falls are characterised by thousands of islands and countless waterways, giving the area its name Si Phan Don or ‘The 4,000 islands’.
The highest falls reach to 21 metres (69 ft); the succession of rapids stretch 9.7 km (6.0 mi) of the river’s length. The average discharge of the cataract is nearly 11,000 m3/s (390,000 cu ft/s), though the highest volume on record was reached at over 49,000 m3/s (1,700,000 cu ft/s).

2. Pará Falls


The CAURA River is one of the large tributaries of the Orinoco and flows through a 5 Million ha. rainforest reserve.
The yearly precipitation range (3.300 l/) determines the heavy amount of water transported by this river.
Halfway along the river course are the PARA FALLS, the most abundant in Venezuela.
n the shape of a half moon the water thunders 60m down between green jungle islands into a gigantic throat 7 km long and afterwards forms a large sandbank (El Playon). Here is an Indian camp “El Playon” with “churuatas” (Indian dwellings) where you can overnight in hammocks and make excursions.

3. Guaíra Falls


Guaíra Falls (Spanish: Saltos del Guairá, Portuguese: Salto das Sete Quedas do Guaíra) were a series of immense waterfalls on the Paraná River along the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The falls no longer exist, inundated in 1982 by the impoundment of the Itaipu Dam reservoir. While published figures vary, ranging from 470,000 cubic feet (13,000 m3) per second to 1,750,000 cubic feet (50,000 m3) per second, Guaíra’s flow rate was among the greatest of any falls on earth.
The falls comprised 18 cataracts clustered in seven groups—hence their Portuguese name, Sete Quedas (Seven Falls)—near the Brazilian municipality of Guaíra, Paraná and Salto de Guairá, the easternmost city in Paraguay. The falls were located at a point where the Paraná River was forced through a narrow gorge. At the head of the falls, the river narrowed sharply from a width of about 1,250 feet (380 m) to 200 feet (61 m). The total height of the falls was approximately 375 feet (114 m), while the largest individual cataract was 130 feet (40 m) high. The roar of the plunging water could be heard from 20 miles (32 km) away.

4. KONGOU FALLS


Kongou Falls (also called the Koungou Falls) is a massive cataract about 2 to 3 miles wide located in Ivindo National Park in eastern Gabon. It is part of the Ivindo river and has a total height of 56 meters. It is the 928th biggest waterfall in the world.
It is reputed to be the most beautiful waterfall in Central Africa. This part of the Ivindo River is a major centre of fish biodiversity. The falls are within Ivindo National Park, created in 2002 to protect among other things this beautiful and biologically diverse stretch of river.
On 14 September 2007 President Omar Bongo Ondimba of Gabon confirmed that a dam would be built at the falls to provide electricity to a large iron mining project in Belinga further north. The iron mine is essentially for Gabon’s economic development, but the dam will inundate a large part of the National Park, and have a serious impact on local livelihoods. Old studies indicate that there are other sites on the river where a dam would be easier to build and the environmental and social impacts would be much less than at Kongou, but no Environmental impact assessment was done before the decision was made. The decision will likely put into question the President’s strategy of developing ecotourism in Gabon and may well deter investors and tourists alike.

5. Iguazu Falls


Iguazu Falls, Iguassu Falls or Iguaçu Falls (Portuguese: Cataratas do Iguaçu [kataˈɾatɐz du iɡwaˈsu]; Spanish: Cataratas del Iguazú [kataˈɾatas ðel iɣwaˈsu]; Guarani: Chororo Yguasu [ɕoɾoɾo ɨɣʷasu]) are waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of Brazilian State Paraná and Argentine Province Misiones. The falls divide the river into the upper and lower Iguazu. The Iguazu River originates near the city of Curitiba. It flows through Brazil for most of its course. Below its confluence with the San Antonio River, the Iguazu River forms the boundary between Brazil and Argentina.
The name “Iguazu” comes from the Guarani or Tupi words “y” , meaning “water”, and “ûasú “[waˈsu], meaning “big”. Legend has it that a god planned to marry a beautiful woman named Naipí, who fled with her mortal lover Tarobá in a canoe. In rage, the god sliced the river, creating the waterfalls and condemning the lovers to an eternal fall.The first European to find the falls was the Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1541.

6. Mocona, Saltos del


One of the most unique of the planet’s large-river waterfalls, Saltos de Mocona drops about 35 feet over the side of a 6000-foot long trough carved lengthwise into a basaltic formation along the Rio Uruguay. As the river bends around a sharp curve, the majority of the water flows along the top of the trough and falls over its side upon straightening. The result is a waterfall which averages almost 6700 feet in width. Visitors can stand opposite the mid-point of the falls and literally see waterfall for almost 180 degrees of view.

The falls straddle the border of Argentina and Brazil, and though the most frequented viewpoints are on the Brazilian side of the river, the majority of the waterfall appears to occur within Argentina.

7. VERMILION FALLS


The Vermillion River meanders through Scott County and Dakota County in Minnesota, emptying into the Mississippi River just south of Hastings. 13.5 miles of it are designated as a trout stream, which is unusual for being so close to a metropolitan area.
The portion of the river that supports trout is upstream, around the towns of Farmington and Empire. Near the town of Vermillion, the water becomes too warm to support trout. Downstream from the falls on the south side of Hastings, the water becomes even warmer, supporting riverine species such as northern pike and freshwater drum. The Minnesota state record black crappie of 5.0 pounds was caught in the Vermillion River in 1940. An old channel of the Vermillion River continues south from Hastings on the western edge of the Mississippi valley.
In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, the river was used for water power, supplying power to gristmills. A park surrounding the falls preserves the remains of a mill operated by Alexander Ramsey, one of the leading citizens of early Minnesota.
The Vermillion Stewards program engages people in cleanups, restoration events and educational activities and is operated by Friends of the Mississippi River.

8. CELILO FALLS


Celilo Falls (Wyam, meaning “echo of clearpores skin got worse falling water” or “sound of water upon the rocks,” in several native languages) was a tribal fishing area on the Columbia River, just east of the Cascade Mountains, on what is today the border between the U.S. states of Oregon and Washington. The name refers to a series of cascades and waterfalls on the river, as well as to the native settlements and trading villages that existed there in various configurations for 15,000 years. Celilo was the oldest continuously inhabited community on the North American continent until 1957, when the falls and nearby settlements were submerged by the construction of The Dalles Dam.

9. VICTORIA FALLS


The Victoria Falls or Mosi-oa-Tunya (Tokaleya Tonga: the Cloud that Thunders; note that the ‘i’ is silent) is a waterfall located in southern Africa on the Zambezi River between the countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe.
While it is neither the highest nor the widest waterfall in the world, it is claimed to be the largest. This claim is based on a width of 1,708 metres (5,604 ft) and height of 108 metres (354 ft), forming the largest sheet of falling water in the world. The falls’ maximum flow rate compares well with that of other major waterfalls (see table below).
For a considerable distance upstream from the falls, the Zambezi flows over a level sheet of basalt, in a shallow valley bounded by low and distant sandstone hills. The river’s course is dotted with numerous tree-covered islands, which increase in number as the river approaches the falls. There are no mountains, escarpments, or deep valleys which might be expected to create a waterfall, only flat plateau extending hundreds of kilometres in all directions.
The falls are formed as the full width of the river plummets in a single vertical drop into a transverse chasm 1708 metres (5604 ft) wide, carved by its waters along a fracture zone in the basalt plateau. The depth of the chasm, called the First Gorge, varies from 80 metres (260 ft) at its western end to 108 metres (354 ft) in the centre. The only outlet to the First Gorge is a 110 metres (360 ft) wide gap about two-thirds of the way across the width of the falls from the western end, through which the whole volume of the river pours into the Victoria Falls gorges.

10. Boyoma Falls


Boyoma Falls, formerly known as Stanley Falls, consists of seven cataracts, each no more than 15′ high, extending over more than 100 km (62 mi) along a curve of the Lualaba River between the river port towns of Ubundu and Kisangani/Boyoma in the Orientale Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
At the bottom of the rapids, the Lualaba becomes the Congo River. The seven cataracts have a total drop of 61 meters (200 feet). The two major cataracts are the first below Ubundu, forming a narrow and crooked stream that is hardly accessible, and the last that can easily be seen and also be visited from Kisangani.
A 1000mm portage railway bypasses the series of rapids, connecting Kisangani and Ubundu.
Especially among French speakers the cataracts are also known as Wagenia Falls (chûtes Wagenia), referring to the local people of fishermen named Wagenia or Wagenya who have developed a special technique to fish in the river. They build systems of wooden tripods across the rapids fixed in holes carved in the rock by the water current. They serve as anchors for baskets that entrap large fish.

11. Niagara Falls


Niagara Falls (Cayuga: Gahnawehtaˀ or Tgahnawęhtaˀ) is the collective name for the Horseshoe Falls and the adjacent American Falls along with the comparatively small Bridal Veil Falls. Located on the Niagara River which drains Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, the combined falls form the highest flow rate of any waterfall in the world, with a vertical drop of more than 165 feet (50 m). Horseshoe Falls is the most powerful waterfall (vertical height along with flow rate) in North America.Niagara Falls straddles the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of New York, also forming the southern end of the Niagara Gorge. The falls are located 17 miles (27 km) north-northwest of Buffalo, New York and 75 miles (121 km) south-southeast of Toronto, between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York.

12. INGA FALLS


Inga Falls is a rapids 40 km from Matadi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where the Congo River drops 96 m (315 ft) over the course of 15 km (9 mi).
Inga Falls form a part of a larger group of rapids – Livingstone Falls and are located closer to the lower part of these falls. Falls have formed in a sharp bend of Congo River where the width of river fluctuates from more than 4 km to mere 260 m.At medium discharge of 42,476 m³/s (1,500,000 ft³/s) it is arguably the largest waterfall in the world,although Inga Falls is not a true waterfall. Its maximum recorded volume is 70,793 m³/s (2,500,000 ft³/s).Inga falls is also the site of two large hydroelectric dams, named Inga I & II, as well as two projected dams, one of which would be the largest (by power production) in the world.

13. Livingstone Falls


Livingstone Falls consist of a series of rapids dropping 900 feet in 220 miles (270 metres in 350 km). They end in Matadi in Bas-Congo. The Congo River has the second largest flow rate in the world after the Amazon, which has no falls or rapids (except near its sources). The lowest rapids of Livingstone Falls, therefore, are the world’s largest waterfall in terms of flow rate — provided one accepts these rapids as being a waterfall. An interesting aspect of the 220-mile (350 km) long Livingstone Falls is the width of the channel. The channel is very narrow: in several stretches the channel width is less than 300 metres and for the majority of the length the channel is less than 800 metres wide. This is an extraordinarily narrow channel since the river flow rate typically exceeds 42,000 cubic metres per second (1,500,000 cu ft/s).

14. WILLAMETTE FALLS

The Willamette Falls is a natural waterfall on the Willamette River between Oregon City and West Linn, Oregon, in the United States. It is the largest waterfall in the Pacific Northwest (2nd largest in the United States behind Niagara Falls) and the eighteenth largest in the world by water volume.
Horseshoe in shape, it is 1,500 feet (460 m) wide and 40 feet (12 m) high with a flow of 30,849 cu ft/s (874 m³/s). Located 26 miles (42 km) upriver from the Willamette’s mouth, a canal and set of locks allow vessels to pass into the main Willamette Valley.

15. Jog Falls

Jog Falls, created by the Sharavathi River falling from a height of 253 m (830 ft) is the second-highest plunge falls in India (after the Nohkalikai Falls with a height of 1100 feet (335 metres) in Meghalaya) plunge waterfall in India, Located near Sagar, Karnataka Shimoga District of Karnataka state, these segmented falls are a major tourist attraction. It is also called by alternative names of Gerusoppe falls, Gersoppa Falls and Jogada Gundi.
There are many waterfalls in Asia – and also in India – which drop from a higher altitude. But, unlike most of such falls, Jog Falls is untiered, i.e., it drops directly and does not stream on to rocks. Thus, it can be described as the First-highest untiered waterfall in India. The waterfall database gives it 83 scenic points while Angel Falls is at 97.

15 Largest BattleShips

Here We Presents Dangerous and Largest Battleships Around The World.A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns. Battleships are larger, with better arms and armor, than cruisers and destroyers. As the largest armed ships in a fleet, battleships were used to attain command of the sea and represented the apex of a nation’s naval power from about 1875 up until World War II. With the rise of air power, guided missiles, and guided bombs, large guns were no longer deemed necessary to establish naval superiority and as a result battleships faded from use.

1.Le Napoléon (1850), the first steam battleship
Largest BattleShips
The Napoléon was a 90-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, and the very first purpose-built steam battleship in the world.She is also considered the first true steam battleship, and the first screw battleship ever.Launched in 1850, she was the lead ship of a class of 9 battleships, all considered as very successful and built over a period of 10 years. This class of ship was designed by the famous naval designer Dupuy de Lôme.Read More

2.The French La Gloire (1859), the first ocean–going ironclad warship
Largest BattleShips
The French Navy’s La Gloire (“Glory”) was the first ocean-going ironclad battleship in history.
She was developed following the Crimean War, in response to new developments in naval gun technology, especially the Paixhans guns and rifled guns, which used explosive shells with increased destructive power against wooden ships, and followed the development of the ironclad floating batteries built by the British and French for the bombardment of Russian forts during the Crimean War. She was designed by the French naval architect Dupuy de Lôme, and was launched at the arsenal of Mourillon, Toulon, on 24 November 1859. Two sister-ships were built.Read More

3. HMS Warrior (1860), the Royal Navy’s first ocean–going iron hulled warship.
Largest BattleShips
HMS Warrior was the first armour-plated, iron-hulled warship, built for the Royal Navy in response to the first ironclad warship, the French Gloire, launched a year earlier.
When completed in October 1861, Warrior was the largest, fastest, most heavily armed and most heavily armoured warship the world had seen. She was almost twice the size of Gloire and thoroughly outclassed the French ship in speed, armour, and gunnery.
Warrior did not introduce any radical new technology, but for the first time combined steam engines, rifled breech-loading guns, iron construction, iron armour, and the propeller in one ship, and all built to an unprecedented scale.Read More

4.The French Redoutable (1876), the first battleship to use steel as the main building materialLargest BattleShips
Redoutable (1876) was a central battery and barbette ship of the French Navy. She was the first warship in the world to use steel as the principal building material.[13]
Compared to iron, steel allowed for greater structural strength for a lower weight. France was the first country to manufacture steel in large quantities, using the Siemens process. At that time, steel plates still had some defects, and the outer bottom plating of the ship was made of wrought iron.
All-steel warships were later built by the Royal Navy, with the dispatch vessels Iris and Mercury, laid down in 1875-1876.Read More

5. Pre-Dreadnought battleship USS Texas, built in 1892, was the first battleship of the U.S. Navy. Photochrom print c. 1898.Largest BattleShips
USS Texas was a second-class pre-dreadnought battleship built by the United States in the early 1890s, the first American battleship commissioned[1] and the first ship named in honor of the state of Texas to be built by the United States.[a] Built in reaction to the acquisition of modern armored warships by several South American countries, Texas was meant to incorporate the latest developments in naval tactics and design. This includes the mounting of her main armament en echelon to allow maximum end–on fire and a heavily–armored redoubt amidships to ensure defensive strength. However, due to the state of U.S. industry at the time, Texas’s building time was lengthy and by the time she was commissioned, she was already out–of–date. Nevertheless, she and her near–sister USS Maine were considered advancements in American naval design.Read More

6.Diagram of HMS Agamemnon (1908), a typical late pre-dreadnought battleshipLargest BattleShips
HMS Agamemnon was one of two Lord Nelson-class pre-dreadnought battleships launched in 1906 and completed in 1908. She was the Royal Navy’s second-to-last pre-dreadnought battleship to be built, followed by her sister ship, Lord Nelson. She was assigned to the Channel Fleet when World War I began in 1914. The ship was transferred to the Mediterranean Sea with Lord Nelson in early 1915 to participate in the Dardanelles Campaign. She made a number of bombardments against Turkish fortifications and in support of British troops. Agamemnon remained in the Mediterranean after the conclusion of that campaign to prevent the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben and light cruiser Breslau from breaking out into the Mediterranean. Agamemnon shot down the German Zeppelin LZ85 during a bombing mission over Salonica in 1916. On 30 October 1918 the Ottoman Empire signed the Armistice of Mudros on board the ship while she was anchored at Lemnos in the northern Aegean Sea. She was converted to a radio-controlled target ship following her return to the United Kingdom in March 1919 and began service in 1921. Agamemnon was replaced by Centurion at the end of 1926 and sold for scrap in January 1927, the last pre-dreadnought in service with the Royal Navy.Read More

7.Japanese battleship Satsuma
Largest BattleShips
Satsuma (薩摩 (戦艦)?, Satsuma (senkan) was a semi-dreadnought type battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed and built in Japan by the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. The name Satsuma comes from Satsuma Province, now a part of Kagoshima prefecture. Some naval historians regard the battleship Aki as her sister ship, although Aki differed considerably with her turbine-powered engine and sleek silhouette.Read More

8.High Seas Fleet
Largest BattleShips
The High Seas Fleet (Hochseeflotte) was the battle fleet of the German Imperial Navy and saw action during World War I. The formation was created in February 1907, when the Home Fleet (Heimatflotte) was renamed as the High Seas Fleet. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz was the architect of the fleet; he envisioned a force powerful enough to challenge the Royal Navy’s predominance. Kaiser Wilhelm II, the emperor of Germany, championed the fleet as the instrument by which he would seize overseas possessions and make Germany a global power. By concentrating a powerful battle fleet in the North Sea while the Royal Navy was required to disperse its forces around the British Empire, Tirpitz believed Germany could achieve a balance of force that could seriously damage British naval hegemony. This was the heart of Tirpitz’s “Risk Theory,” which held that Britain would not challenge Germany if the latter’s fleet posed such a significant Ativan Dosage threat to its own.Read More

9.SMS Szent István
Largest BattleShips
SMS Szent István was a Tegetthoff-class dreadnought of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, the only one built in the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary. The Ganz & Company’s Danubius Yard in Hungarian-owned Fiume (Rijeka) was awarded the contract to build the battleship in return for the Hungarian government agreeing to the 1910 and 1911 naval budgets. She was named after Hungary’s first Christian king, Saint Stephen (Hungarian: Szent István). She, and her classmates, were regarded as very compact and powerful ships and were the first dreadnoughts in service with triple main-gun turretsRead More

10.SMS Ostfriesland
Largest BattleShips
SMS Ostfriesland (“His Majesty’s Ship East Frisia”)[Note 1] was the second vessel of the Helgoland class of battleships of the German Imperial Navy. Named for the region of East Frisia, Ostfriesland’s keel was laid in October 1908 at the Kaiserliche Werft dockyard in Wilhelmshaven. She was launched on 30 September 1909 and was commissioned into the fleet on 1 August 1911. The ship was equipped with twelve 30.5-centimeter (12.0 in) guns in six twin turrets, and had a top speed of 21.2 knots (39.3 km/h; 24.4 mph). Ostfriesland was assigned to the I Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet for the majority of her career, including World War I.
Along with her three sister ships, Helgoland, Thüringen, and Oldenburg, Ostfriesland participated in all of the major fleet operations of World War I in the North Sea against the British Grand Fleet. This included the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916, the largest naval battle of the war. The ship also saw action in the Baltic Sea against the Russian Navy. She was present during the unsuccessful first incursion into the Gulf of Riga in August 1915.Read More

11.USS Colorado (BB-45)
Largest BattleShips
USS Colorado (BB-45), the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 38th state, was the lead ship of her class of battleships. Her keel was laid down on 29 May 1919 by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation of Camden, New Jersey. She was launched on 22 March 1921 sponsored by Mrs. Max Melville, Denverite, daughter of United States Senator from Colorado Samuel D. Nicholson; and commissioned on 30 August 1923, Captain R. R. Belknap in command.Read More

12.USS Texas (BB-35)
Largest BattleShips
USS Texas (BB-35), the second ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the U.S. state of Texas, is a New York-class battleship. The ship was launched on 18 May 1912 and commissioned on 12 March 1914.
Soon after her commissioning, Texas saw action in Mexican waters following the “Tampico Incident” and made numerous sorties into the North Sea during World War I. When the United States formally entered World War II in 1941, Texas took on the role of escorting war convoys across the Atlantic, and she later shelled Axis-held beaches for the North African campaign and the Normandy Landings before being transferred to the Pacific Theater late in 1944 to provide naval gunfire support during the Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.Read more

13.USS Missouri (BB-63)
Largest BattleShips
USS Missouri (BB-63) (“Mighty Mo” or “Big Mo”) is a United States Navy Iowa-class battleship, and was the third ship of the U.S. Navy to be named in honour of the US state of Missouri. Missouri was the last battleship built by the United States, and was the site of the surrender of the Empire of Japan which ended World War II.
Missouri was ordered in 1940 and commissioned in June 1944. In the Pacific Theater of World War II she fought in the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa and shelled the Japanese home islands, and she fought in the Korean War from 1950 to 1953. She was decommissioned in 1955 into the United States Navy reserve fleets (the “Mothball Fleet”), but reactivated and modernized in 1984 as part of the 600-ship Navy plan, and provided fire support during Operation Desert Storm in January/February 1991.Read More

14.The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa
Largest BattleShips
USS Iowa (BB-61) was the lead ship of her class of battleship and the fourth in the United States Navy to be named in honor of the 29th state. Owing to the cancellation of the Montana-class battleships, Iowa is the last lead ship of any class of United States battleships, and was the only ship of her class to have served in the Atlantic Ocean during World War II.
During World War II, she carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt across the Atlantic to Casablanca en route to a crucial 1943 meeting in Tehran with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin. She has a bathtub — an amenity installed for Roosevelt, along with an elevator to shuttle him between decks.[1] When transferred to the Pacific Fleet in 1944, Iowa shelled beachheads at Kwajalein and Eniwetok in advance of Allied amphibious landings and screened aircraft carriers operating in the Marshall Islands. She also served as the Third Fleet flagship, flying Adm. William F. Halsey’s flag at the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay. During the Korean War, Iowa was involved in raids on the North Korean coast, after which she was decommissioned into the United States Navy reserve fleets, better known as the “mothball fleet.” She was reactivated in 1984 as part of the 600-ship Navy plan, and operated in both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets to counter the recently expanded Soviet Navy. In April 1989, an explosion of undetermined origin wrecked her #2 gun turret, killing 47 sailors.Read More

15.Japanese battleship Yamato
Largest BattleShips
Yamato (大和?), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was the lead ship of the Yamato class of battleships that served with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. She and her sister ship, Musashi, were the heaviest and most powerfully armed battleships ever constructed, displacing 72,800 tonnes at full load and armed with nine 46 cm (18.1 inch) main guns. Neither ship survived the war.
Laid down in 1937 and formally commissioned a week after the Pearl Harbor attack in late 1941, Yamato was designed to counter the numerically superior battleship fleet of the United States, Japan’s main rival in the Pacific. Throughout 1942 she served as the flagship of the Japanese Combined Fleet, and in June 1942 Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto directed the fleet from her bridge during the disastrous Battle of Midway. Musashi took over as the Combined Fleet flagship in early 1943, and Yamato spent the rest of the year, and much of 1944, moving between the major Japanese naval bases of Truk and Kure in response to American threats. Although she was present at the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June 1944, Yamato played no part in the battle. Read More

10 Worst Dressed Oscars of All Time

The annual Academy Awards witnessed exciting and memorable performances by prominent artists that will entertain audiences. Watching this event, we can see celebrities in their most glorious outfits. They often appear in beautiful outfits because they are regarded as fashion idols for people to follow. However, celebrities sometimes made mistakes in choosing the suitable fashion style. They walked the red carpet in strange and ugly clothes. Therefore, their efforts to become the center of attention unfortunately made their names more notorious. The swan dress of Bjork at the 2001 Oscars, the Vegas showgirl-inspired outfit of Cher at the 1986 Oscars, the fish-inspired white gown of Marion Cotillard at the 2008 Oscars and so on are considered as the Oscar’s weirdest outfits of all time.

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Top 5 “megan fox movies”

Megan Fox was born May 16, 1986 in Tennessee. She has one older sister. Megan began her training in drama and dance at the age of 5 and, at the age of 10, moved to Florida where she continued her training and finished school. She now lives in Los Angeles. Megan began acting and modeling at the age of 13 after winning several awards at the 1999 American Modeling and Talent Convention in Hilton Head.

Here is a list of Top “megan fox movies” upto 2011.  Megan Fox also appeared in 37 episodes of Hope & Faith as Sydney Shanowski. She guest starred on Two and a Half Men as Prudence in the episode ‘Camel Filters and Pheremones’. Megan Fox also acted as Ione Starr in 122 episodes of the critically panned soap ‘Ocean Ave’.

Top 5 “megan fox movies”

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20 Sexy Tattoos For Girls

Trend for tattoos are increasing rapidly, people love getting inked. Celebrities are more crazy about tattoos, many of them are caught having inked with various tattoos types. Tattoos have experienced a resurgence in popularity in many parts of the world, particularly in North and South America, Japan, and Europe.

A lower back tattoo is a body decoration. Such tattoos have become popular since the late 1990s. They are commonly derided as suggestive of promiscuity and often referred to as “tramp stamps” and other slang terms. The German term Arschgeweih can be translated as ‘ass antlers’. Such tattoos are primarily seen on women.

We are today presenting an ultimate collection of tattoos covering Sexy Lower Back Tattoos for girls that can really make your heart go for tattoo design. For your viewing pleasure, here are some examples of 20 Super sexy Girls in Body Paint that you might enjoy.

Sexy Tattoos For Girls

Sexy Tattoos For Girls

Sexy Tattoos For Girls

Sexy Tattoos For Girls

Sexy Tattoos For Girls

Sexy Tattoos For Girls

5 Hottest Sex Scenes in movies [GIFs]

Let’s be real here for a second: we are dudes. And dudes like to watch hot ladies get it on. But since we’re too classy for adult entertainment, we need to dial it down a notch and get our sex scenes from movies and TV. What they lack in the old in and out, they make up for in eroticism, or something. I don’t know. Anyways, here’s some of my favorite.

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Coober Pedy – Opal Capital of the World

Coober Pedy, an opal mining town in South Australia, is located in an extremely inhospitable environment. Desert temperatures in the summer usually exceed 104 degrees Fahrenheit and it can get quite chilly in the winter. Years ago, the original miners stumbled upon a solution to living there: Build everything underground. They began using old opal mines or digging out new structures for housing. The underground homes naturally maintain a comfortable temperature. They require no air-conditioning or heating systems, greatly reducing the residents’ carbon footprints. Most of the towns 1,916 residents continue to build and live underground. Source: 1, 2

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